This Day in Groucutt History

It’s unclear which Groucutt was on the other side of the law, but the Birmingham police were not having it.



Before Messrs. T.C.S. Kynnersley and W. Middlemore

OFFICIAL INTERFERENCE WITH “POPULAR AMUSEMENTS.’ – John Mack, a resident of London ‘Prentice Street, was brought up on the charge of having meditated a breach of her Majesty’s peace. It seemed that, on Monday last, the assessed had been engaged in a pugilistic tournament with one Groucutt, who had been apprehended by the police, and bound over to keep the peace, but who still “eager for the fray,” meant to renew the contest yesterday. An active constable, named Moon, having got an inkling of the proposed content, took effectual means to prevent it, by placing one of the principal “performers” (the prisoner), in confinement. – The Bench made an order that the prisoner should be bound over, in two sureties of £10. each, to keep the peace for the next six months.

“Birmingham Police Court,” 11 Dec 1863, The Birmingham Daily Post, pg 2, col 6; online images, ( : accessed 28 Nov 2020),

The Arrival of George Groucutt

When I first found the obituary of my great, great grandfather, George Leo Groucutt, I was a bit confused. I’ve long known of his early years in New Castle, Pennsylvania, but there was a new addition to the story:

“… came to St. Louis in 1891 and to New Castle in 1892…”

This was the first I had heard of George or any of these Groucutts living anywhere except in western Pennsylvania and northeast Ohio. Why had he decided to go to St. Louis? Did he know people or receive information in England of available jobs? These questions are still unknown, but his travel information no longer is.

SS Nevada of the Guion Line.

George set sail from Liverpool, England, the busiest departure port in England around 1 September 1891. Aboard the SS Nevada of the Liverpool and Great Western Steamship Company, known commonly as the Guion Line, he was in steerage, traveling without his family. It was likely crowded, with open berthing. Whether we had a bunk, a hammock, or even just the floor, he would have shared this berthing space. His record in the ship’s manifest reads:

Number: 323 [of 679]
Name: George Growcutt
Age: 36
Sex: M
Calling: Laborer
Country of which they are citizens: England
Intended destination or location: St. Louis
Date and cause of death: — [thankfully!]
Location of compartment or place occupied: Forward steerage No. 1
Number of pieces of baggage: 1
Transient, or in transit, or protracted sojourn: Protracted

The SS Nevada arrived in New York Harbor on 10 September 1891. His view from the deck would have looked similar to this circa 1891 image of the Statue of Liberty. Imagine traveling alone, looking for work, and this image is one of the first things you see in America. It’s a beautiful sight!

The Statue of Liberty and New York Harbor in 1891. Source: Viewing NYC

From the SS Nevada, it’s likely that he boarded a tender to be taken to the temporary immigration station being run by the Federal government at the Barge Office at the Battery on Lower Manhattan. Winding through corrals, he likely would have received a medical screening. Eventually, after successfully completing the exams, he was released into Manhattan with his bag, any money he was carrying with him, and the expectation that he would soon move on to find work.

Barge Office, New York
Barge Office, New York. Library of Congress.

How did he get to St. Louis from Manhattan? We will likely never known, but it likely involved a train. Several railroads provided service from New York to St. Louis without requiring extensive transfers. The Baltimore & Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad both provided this service.

Regardless, we do know that the SS Nevada didn’t wait in New York Harbor long before it’s next journey. On a transatlantic voyage just three months after George’s, 17-year old Annie Moore of Ireland was on the manifest. She would gain fame as the first person to enter Ellis Island, the replacement for the Barge Office that George passed through, beginning 32 years of immigration through this famous port of entry. The SS Nevada would make several more transatlantic crossings before being struck from the roster of the Guion Line in 1893.

“Passenger and Crew Lists (including Castle Garden and Ellis Island), 1820-1957,” database and images, Ancestry ( : accessed 26 Nov 2020) > 1891 > Sep > 10 > Nevada, passenger list, SS Nevada, Liverpool to New York departing abt 1 Sep 1891, entry for George Growcatt [Groucutt], image 8 of 16; citing “Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1897-1957,” Microfilm Publication T715, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

The Washingtonville Tavern


My Aunt Mary recently passed to my father a collection of family photos. While many were some I have seen before, this image was entirely new and entirely wonderful. On first glance, I didn’t recognize the setting or the vast majority of the men and boys, but two characters stood out. On the far left is my third great grandfather Michael Lowry and next to him stands my second great grandfather, also Michael Lowry in the white shirt and suspenders.

Upon showing the image to my dad and commenting how incredible it was, he stated that Michael (which one we don’t know) owned a tavern in Washingtonville, a small hamlet just a few blocks north of Leetonia in Columbiana County, Ohio.

I’ve searched a number of places to locate more information on this tavern, including studying Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, county directories, a history of Leisy Beer, and newspapers. Nothing about Michael Lowry indicated that he owned a tavern until I showed my dad the picture. I am unable to locate more but I know there’s a story here so I will keep digging!

The Washingtonville Tavern, photograph, taken in Washingtonville, Columbiana [or possibly Mahoning], Ohio, in early 1900s; digital image, scan of original, scanned in 2017 by Joseph Lowry; privately held by Patrick Lowry, [address for private use], Poland, Ohio; Five adult men and four young boys standing in front of tavern with Leisy Beer signs; Provenance is Michael Lowry to Charles Lowry to Mary McCaffrey to Patrick Lowry.

Remembrance Day: Thomas Foy

poppyIf the saying that “war is hell” is true, then the Battle of the Somme in World War I was the perfect example of this hell. On the first day of the battle, 1 July 1916, there were 57,000 casualties, and the battle would drag on until 18 November 1916. Within a week, the battle was at a standstill with Germans, French and British forces grinding it out in a maze of trench warfare.

It was at the end of the first week that the Monmouthshire Regiment was thrown into action as a pioneer regiment, which meant that they were to create the trenches and defensive positions used by the fighting force. Monmouthshire, Wales was a mining region, and the engineering skills of the miners-turned-soldiers made them well suited for the task. In this regiment was Thomas Foy, a 37-year old sergeant who had been called to serve.

Thomas was the brother of my great great grandmother, Bridget Foy Groucutt. While Bridget and several siblings immigrated to the United States, Thomas remained in England. On 5 June 1915, with the war well underway, he embarked to France with the 3rd Battalion, Monmouthshire Regiment.

They found themselves at the Somme in July 1916 under withering artillery fire. On 7 July 1916, on the front lines, Sergeant Foy found himself just a few feet from his company’s commanding officer, Captain J. Merton Jones, who wrote in the casualty report:

I believe [Thomas Foy] was killed as I saw a shell (believed to be a 5.9) pitch, as it appeared to me in the night,  full upon him. I was about 2 to 3 yards from him and a minute previously had been [?] to him. Sever others pitched in the same spot afterwards and then getting away the wounded, I could not find Foy then, nor afterwards, neither did any man or stretcher-bearer help him to any Dressing Station. I therefore believe he was killed.



My third-great-uncle Thomas Foy was killed at the Battle of the Somme on 7 July 1916, one of over 95,000 British soldiers to die on this French battlefield. He is buried at the Mill Road Cemetery in Thiepval, France.


“British Army WWI Service Records, 1914-1920,” images, Fold3 ( : accessed 13 Nov 2016), record for Thomas Foy, 3rd Monmouthshire Regiment, page 325; National Archives of the UK, London, England.

The Last Will and Testament of Moses Wolford (1777 – 1845)

Moses Wolford, my 5th great grandfather, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and died in 1845 in Coshocton, Ohio. His last will and testament was written in the last year of his life and upon his death, probated in Coshocton County’s probate court.

Will of Moses Wolford Dec’d

Will & Probate

The state of Ohio                                                        Court of common Pleas
Coshocton County                                                     October Term to wit on the
23rd day of October A.S. 1845

Be it remembered that on the day & year aforesaid. The last will and testament of Moses Wolford late of Cochocton County dec. was this day produced in writing and Joseph Hardiman & Jacob [J/I?] Kennedy, credible witnesses thereunto being in open court duly sworn & severelly examined & whose testimony was taken in writing and signed & duly filed and is appearing to the court from the above testimony of said witnesses that said last will and testament was duly executed. that the testament of the time of executing the same was of full age, of sound mind & memory, and not under any restraint. & is by the court ordered that said last will and testament, together with the proof thereof be recorded by the clerk of this Court.

Which said last will and testament is in the words and [figures] following to wit,

I, Moses Wolford of Bedford Township, Coshocton County, in the state of Ohio, do make and publish this, my last Will and Testament in manner and form following, that is to say. First, it is my will that my funeral expenses and all my just debts be fully paid. Second, I give and devise and bequeath to my beloved wife [NANCY] ANN WOLFORD in lieu of her dower, that is to say she is to remain in the house where she now lives, and share the sole control of the same during her natural life, and to have one fourth of the produce that is raised on the said farms, that is to say the north east quarter of section twenty four of township number five and range number eight in the military district of lands directed to be sold at Zanesville, Ohio, containing by estimation one hundred and sixty acres [purchased 1815, per description above], during her natural life,  [the produce being] the wheat, rye, oats by the bushel at her house, corn when husked to be put in a crib where she may direct on the place, hay in the stack and potatoes when dug where she may direct, to have what fruit she may need for summer and fall use and for drying, etc. when there is fruit and the one fourth of the winter fruit for buring, etc, and the sixth part of the sugar that may make [sic] to delivered to her at her house, and live stock, two cows, six sheep, six head of hogs, stock to be pastured and kept on the place, also all the household and kitchen furniture and other items not particularly named and otherwise disposed of in this will, during her natural life as aforesaid, and that at the death of my said wife, all of the property hereby devised or bequeathed to her as aforesaid or so much as there may then remain unexpended after paying her funeral expenses and costs, debts, etc. contracted for her use, I wish to be sold by my executor hereafter named and the proceeds to be equally divided among my children, namely ELIJAH WOLFORD, GODFREY WOLFORD, JEREMIAH WOLFORD, MOSES WOLFORD, MATHIAS WOLFORD, BARBARA CLOUSE, ELIZABETH GONSAR, MARGARET WOLFORD, SARAH WOLFORD and HARRIET WOLFORD, and to their heirs and assigns forever share and share alike. Third, I give and devise to by two sons MOSES and JEREMIAH WOLFORD the quarter section as above named whereon I now live, to be equally divided between them by running a straight line through the center from east to west of said quarter, [MOSES] to have the north and JEREMIAH the south part of said quarter by paying their brother ELIJAH WOLFORD one hundred dollars each within three years after probate of this will, these bequeaths intended to make them equal to my two sons GODFREY WOLFORD [father of Elijah Clarence Sr] and MATHIAS WOLFORD, who have deed for their portions of lands in other tracts. Fourth, I give and devise to my daughters BARBARA CLOUSE, ELIZABETH GONSAR, MARGARET, SARAH AND HARRIETT WOLFORD, my eighty acres of land, being the south half of the north west quarter of section number twenty three in township number five, range eight in the military district of land directed to be sold at Zaneville, Ohio, [purchased by Moses in 1831, as described above], said land to be sold as soon as convenient by my executors and the proceeds thereof be divided amongst my said daughters, so that BARBARA CLOUSE shall have fifty dollars and ELIZABETH GONSAR forty dollars less than the others in the division.  BARBARA CLOUSE and ELIZABETH GONSAR received the aforesaid amounts already more than the others. Fifth, I give and devise and dispose of the rest and residue of my property not yet bequeathed in the following manner (IE) my will is that it be sold by my executors as the law directs and the proceeds arising therefrom to be applied to the payment of my debts and other incidental expenses, then my widow to have the one equal share and the other two thirds to be equally divided among my children as follows, to wit:  ELIJAH and GODFREY WOLFORD, MOSES and MATHIAS WOLFORD, BARBARA CLOUSE, ELIZABETH GONSAR, MARGARET, SARAH, and HARRIET WOLFORD share and share alike.  The last bequests to make them equal to their brother JEREMIAH WOLFORD, having got his share already, this last article not to be understood to embrace any of the property left in this will to my widow, and lastly I hereby constitute and appoint my two sons JEREMIAH and MOSES WOLFORD to be my executor for this my last will and testament revoking and annulling all former wills by me made and ratifying and confirming this and no other to be my last will and testament.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 27th day of January Eighteen Hundred and Forty Two.

MOSES “X” WOLFORD [signed]

Signed published & declared by the above named Moses Wolford as and for his last will & testament in presence of us who at his required have signed and [written] to the same.

Coshocton County, Ohio, Probate Court Record Book Volume D, 1837-1846, p 444, Last Will and Testament of Moses Wolford, 1845; “Ohio, Wills and Probate Records, 1786-1998,” digital images, ( : accessed 29 Oct 2015)

Ralph Lowry: A Fisher(y) of Men

In my quest to document the life of Ralph Lowry, my first cousin, 3x removed and the U.S. Government’s chief engineer on many Western dam projects, I found this newspaper article posted above.

In part, it reads that in 1949, a plaque was placed at the Coleman National Fish Hatchery to recognize Ralph’s part in the creation of the fishery. Located about 35 miles from the Shasta Dam project that Ralph also built, the hatchery was created because the dam impacted the ability of the salmon to reach their natural spawning grounds.

Thanks to the power of the internet, I emailed Brett Galyean, the Acting Project Leader who runs the hatchery, to inquire about the plaque. He provided these two photos, showing the plaque next to the flag pole in front of the match hatchery building and a close-up.

My thanks to Brett for the extra effort. Another piece of Lowry history found!

“Plaque Honors S.M. Engineer,” The [San Mateo, CA] Times, 22 Dec 1949, pg 7, col 1; digital image, ( : accessed 14 Aug 2016),

Brett Galyean, Coleman National Fish Hatchery, Anderson, California, [e-mail for private use], to Joseph Lowry, 16 Aug 2016, “Plaque at Coleman Hatchery,” Local Folders: Genealogy : Lowry Genealogy; privately held by Joe Lowry, [e-mail &address for private use], Sterling, VA, 20165.

Census Sunday – The Rabe Family in 1910

The amazing thing about genealogy is that sometimes a record that seems so minor to your larger family history can lead to connections across multiple families and fill so many blanks. Such is the case of the Rabe family of Topeka, Kansas.

Late in the night, when I tend to lose focus on my research, I bounce from ancestor to ancestor, adding records to my family tree as I stumble upon them. One record collection I was aware of but hadn’t searched in sometime was the “United States, Obituaries, American Historical Society of Germans from Russia, 1899-2012″ collection on As my Porubsky and Schulmeister ancestors are Volga Germans, I did a simple surname search for Porubsky. In the process, I located the obituary of Catherine Porubsky (Reeb).


In reading the names in this record, I instantly recognized Porubsky and Schwerdt. Reeb sounded familar, but my Topeka relatives were Rabes, not Reebs. Catherine Rabe was in my family tree, married to Matthew Porubsky, but she lacked parents in my database. In fact, I had three Rabes in my tree and they all lacked parents.

  • Catherine E. Rabe was married to Matthew G. Porubsky
  • Elizabeth B. Rabe was married to Joseph A. Schulmeister
  • Joseph Rabe was married to Caroline Schulmeister

The three Rabes lived in Topeka and were born within 15 years of each other. The original obituary named a sister Pauline, but no other siblings. Could they be related? I set to find out! I knew she was born in 1901 to John and Catherine, who were born in Russia. From other record sources, I also knew that Elizabeth was born in 1889 and Joseph in 1887. I located a Rabe family in the 1910 United States Census. The details I previously had confirmed from later census and marriage records fit well with this 1910 record.

The three Rabes in my family tree were siblings, and each had married into the family of my ancestors, making them my 3rd great aunts and uncles.


State: Kansas
County: Kearny
Township: Lakin
Name of Incorporated Place:
Ward of the City:
Enumerated by me on the 2nd of May
Henry H. Cochran, Enumerator

Supervisor’s District: 7
Enumeration District: 83
Sheet No. 9A

Dwelling No. 199
Family No. 200

Address: Unknown (not listed)

Rabe, John, head, male, white, 45 years old, 1st marriage, married 25 years. Born in Russ German. Father born in Russ German. Mother born in Russ German. Immigrated in 1900. Has applied for citizenship and has his first papers (Pa.). Speaks German. Works as a tenant farmer working on his own account (meaning, not an employee or employer). Is not out of work; out of work 0 weeks in prior year. Can read: No. Can write: No. Rents the farm, which is found on Agriculture Schedule 81.1

” Katie, wife, female, white, 45 years old, 1st marriage, married 25 years. 12 children born, 9 still living. Born in Russ German. Father born in Russ German. Mother born in Russ German. Immigrated in 1900. Speaks German. Not employed. Can read: No. Can write: No.

” Joe, son, male, white, 22 years old, single. Born in Russ German. Father born in Russ German. Mother born in Russ German. Immigrated in 1900. Speaks German. Employed as a laborer in the beet fields. Can read: Yes. Can write: Yes.

” Anna, daughter, female, white, 17 years old, single. Born in Russ German. Father born in Russ German. Mother born in Russ German. Immigrated in 1900. Speaks German. Employed as a laborer in the beet fields. Can read: Yes. Can write: Yes. Attended school anytime since September 1, 1909: Yes.

” Frank, son, male, white, 11 years old, single. Born in Russ German. Father born in Russ German. Mother born in Russ German. Immigrated in 1900. Speaks German. Employed as a laborer in the beet fields. Can read: No. Can write: No. Attended school anytime since September 1, 1909: Yes.

” Elizabeth, daughter, female, white, 10 years old, single. Born in Russ German. Father born in Russ German. Mother born in Russ German. Immigrated in 1900. Speaks German. Employed as a laborer in the beet fields. Can read: No. Can write: No. Attended school anytime since September 1, 1909: Yes.

” Katie, daughter, female, white, 8 years old, single. Born in Kansas. Father born in Russ German. Mother born in Russ German. Not employed. Attended school anytime since September 1, 1909: Yes.

” Jacob, son, male, white, 6 years old, single. Born in Colorado. Father born in Russ German. Mother born in Russ German. Not employed. Attended school anytime since September 1, 1909: No.

” Mary, daughter, female, white, 4 years old, single. Born in Colorado. Father born in Russ German. Mother born in Russ German. Not employed.

” Pauline, daughter, female, white, 2 years old, single. Born in Kansas. Father born in Russ German. Mother born in Russ German. Not employed.

1. “Catherine Porubsky,” The Topeka Capital Journal, 22 Sep 1992, pg 3D; “United States, Obituaries, American Historical Society of Germans from Russia, 1899-2012,” database with images, FamilySearch ( : 14 August 2015), 100415107 > image 7336 of 8998; American Historical Society of Germans from Russia, Lincoln.

2. 1910 U.S. Federal Census, Kearny County, Lakin, population schedule, enumeration district (ED) 83, sheet 9A, dwelling 199, family 200, household of John Rabe; digital image, ( : accessed 15 August 2016), FHL microfilm 1374454, citing NARA publication  T624_441.

The Porubsky-Schulmeister Nuptials

“Twenty-one year old Carl Porubsky, the son of Mathias and Christina Vogelman Porubsky was wed today to eighteen-year old Elizabeth Schulmeister in a family ceremony at Saint Joseph German Catholic Church in Topeka.”

If I was writing a wedding announcement for these two, it would probably start out with my just-the-facts manner before devolving into a mess of a discussion about roses, 3-button suits, and broaches. Alas, I am not the writer of wedding announcements. This picture was taken on Karl and Lizzie’s wedding day, Sunday, 26 August 1906.¹

I don’t know the time of the service, and unlike other Christian denominations, Mass times for the Catholic churches don’t appear in The Topeka Daily Capital. The weather this Sunday was described as fair, with temperatures in the upper 70’s to lower 80’s.² Surely, for August in Topeka, it was a lovely day to get married.

Carl and Elizabeth would see this marriage last fifty-five years, until Carl’s death in 1962. Elizabeth died in 1972.

IMG_5793_Fotor copy


Sources and Notes:

  1. Names appear in the marriage license announcement as Karl Bornesky and Lizzie Schulmeister. “Marriage Licenses,” The Topeka [KS] Daily Capital, 26 Aug 1906, page 11, col 4; digital image, ( : accessed 7 Aug 2016),
  2. “Weather Conditions,” The Topeka [KS] Daily Capital, 26 Aug 1906, page 1, col 5; digital image, ( : accessed 7 Aug 2016),
  3. Carl Porubsky and Elizabeth Schulmeister Porubsky, photograph, taken in Topeka, Kansas, on 26 August 1906; digital image, photograph of original, taken 2016 by Joseph Lowry; privately held by Barbara Viti, [address for private use], Tallmadge, Ohio; Two young adults in marriage outfits, one a dark 3-button suit and the other a white gown with flowers; Provenance is Carl and Elizabeth Porubsky to Caroline Porubsky Wolford to Barbara Wolford Viti.

My cousin John R. Byrne in 1890

John R. Byrne is my 1st cousin, 4x removed. He was born in 1858 in Pennsylvania and died on 2 Oct 1932 in Everson, Fayette, Pennsylvania. This fascinating biography of the politician, newspaperman and entrepreneur  appeared in an 1890 printing of the “Biographical and Historical Cyclopedia of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.”


Hon. John R. Byrne. Celtic blood flowed in the veins of many prominent citizens of the United States who have been conspicuous alike on the battle-field and in the forum, and to-day many of that blood and race throughout Pennsylvania hold and have held important public offices of trust and honor. One of the latter class is John R. Byrne, ex-member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. He is the son of John L. and Mary (Lowry) Byrne and was born at Barnettstown, Carbon township, Huntingdon county, Pa., April 23, 1858.

John L. Byrne (father) was born in county Meath, Ireland, reared in the city of Dublin and as a participant in the Irish Rebellion of 1847 and ’48 found is necessary to immigrate in the latter year to Pennsylvania, where he located at Hollidaysburg. He was a brakes-man and railroad conductor for several years; a contractor on the Broad Top railroad and engaged in hotel keeping at Barnettstown and Everson, Pa. At the latter named place he died January 16, 1883 aged fifty-four years. He was a delegate to the first General Assembly meeting of the Knights of Labor ever held in America, which convened in 1887 at Reading, Pa., and was treasurer of the Miners’ and Laborers’ Benevolent Association during its palmiest days. When the attempted Fenian invasion of Canada from the United States occurred it found an ardent advocate in Mr. Byrne, who was an active member of the Fenian Brotherhood. He raised a company to join the Fenian army of invasion but it was never called into service, as the Fenian forces were dispersed without much fighting.

John R. Byrne attended the common schools of Huntingdon county, Pa., till thirteen years of age. He then entered a coal mine as a trapper boy for which he received thirty-seven and one-half cents per day ; he was soon transferred to driving and shortly afterwards engaged in digging, and remained in the latter employment until he attained his majority. In 1873 he moved with his father to Everson, Fayette county. In 1878, he migrated to Leadville, Colorado, where he remained one year and returned east as far as Pittsburgh, where he was married. In 1880 he returned to Everson, Fayette county, Pa., and resumed mining in which he continued until the great labor strike of 1881. He was made president of the organization that controlled and conducted the above strike and during its progress established the Miner’s Record, which he conducted for eighteen months and then changed the name to that of Scottdale Independent. In 1885 W.N. Porter became a partner with him in the newspaper business and in 1886 they disposed of the Independent to Hiram B. Strickler, who sold it in 1887 to a joint stock company which employed Mr. Byrne as editor. After eight months editorial service he returned on account of his eyesight becoming affected. On July 17, 1889, he became editor of the Tribune Press, of Scottdale, which he continues to edit as a republican editor. It is a four-page folio of thirty-two columns and is principally devoted to local news and labor interests. In December, 1887, he formed a partnership with his brother, Arthur P. Byrne, in the boot and shoe business at Scottdale under the form name of John R. Byrne & Co. They have built up a large trade and carry a full and well-assorted collection of boots and shoes. In 1886, he was elected from Fayette county to a seat in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. He had a majority of 696 votes in a county that was strongly democratic prior to 1886, and was the first republican elected to the Legislature from that county since 1874. He served in the session of 1887-8 and was a member of five important committees. In 1888 he was a candidate for re-election but was defeated in the Republican party and opposition from coke operators.

On July 3, 1880, he was united in marriage to Joanna Lynch, daughter of John Lynch, of Everson. To this union have been born three children: Henry W., Arthur L. and Florence E.

He is a member of Scottdale Conclave, No. 172, Independent Order of Heptasophs. In religion he is a Roman Catholic and a republican in politics. Mr. Byrne has ever labored in the interests of his political party and given largely of his time for the advancement of its aims. He resides just across the Westmoreland county line, at Everson, in Fayette county, Pa., but carries on his business in Scottdale.; has been identified with the interests of that borough for nearly ten years. He has for many years been one of the labor leaders of southern Pennsylvania and a recognized authority on labor subjects with many workingmen.

Wiley, Samuel T., Biographical and Historical Cyclopedia of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, (Westmoreland, Pennsylvania, Dunlap and Clarke, 1890), 232; digital images, Google Books ( : accessed 30 Jul 2016).